Immune Environment in PD
Many studies have reported changes in the levels of cytokines in the brain and serum of PD patients. These confirm that the immune system is involved in the disease. And what is worth noting is that in addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, the level of some cytokines that are anti-inflammatory or with repair function has also increased. These results have further led to the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1 can maintain microglia activation and promote dopaminergic neuron death in PD patients. Dopamine and other neurotransmitters regulate the differentiation of CD4 T cells. In the course of PD disease, the number of available DAs is greatly reduced compared to normal, and these limited DAs will bind to the receptor with the lowest Ki, and finally cause the CD4 T cell response to shifting to Th1 type, and due to the suppressed IL-10 production. The tolerance will also be compromised. In the immune system of PD patients, the number of B cells also decreased, and their proliferation was also regulated by DA.
Development of Vaccines against PD
At present, the design ideas of PD vaccine can be divided into two strategies, one is to produce antibodies against α-syn, and the other is to produce T cell responses that can regulate neuroinflammatory reactions. The main goal of the former is to remove the accumulated α-syn, while the latter targets microglia. Immunization with some non-PD related antigens such as COP-1, MOG, VIP, BCG, CFS, and α-syn can reduce the death of neuronal cells and regulate the microglia response. In addition, an increase in the number of Tregs cells in the spleen, an increase in DA levels, and even a recovery of dopaminergic neurons was observed after BCG vaccination.
Neurodegenerative diseases, especially Parkinson’s disease, seriously affect the quality of life of patients and the risk of death is high, so the development of effective PD vaccine is imperative. Creative Biolabs has many years of experience in the field of vaccines. We have also conducted in-depth research on vaccines for neurodegenerative diseases. Countless successful cases that we helped researchers to favorably complete their research tasks have proven that Creative Biolabs is the most reliable partner for your vaccine development!