Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for a range of conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain. Among them, Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common disease in the world, and there is currently no cure available for the disease. As the incidence of PD increases, developing a vaccine that can prevent the disease will be an effective strategy for controlling PD. Creative Biolabs has extensive experience in the development of PD vaccines, thus is well-prepared to provide professional and targeted services to help researchers advance the development process.
Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and Pathogenesis
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the brain, which further leads to the progressive and severe motor impairment, is the most important feature of Parkinson’s disease. The results of more than a decade of research indicate that protein α-synuclein (α-syn), which is normally expressed at the neuronal terminals, may be involved in the development of PD. A series of studies have found that modification or accumulation of this protein caused by mutations or a large increase in the number of the gene encoding α-syn contributes greatly to the occurrence of PD. Studies in animals have also indicated that prion-like spread of α-syn protein may induce PD-like neurodegeneration. In addition to the α-syn gene and the role of protein in the development of PD, neuroinflammation is also a very important factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Microglia can ensure the stable production of reactive oxygen species, IL-1, TNF, and IL-6 in the brain, and its chronic activation can lead to continuous damage to neurons dealing with abnormal state of α-syn. Moreover, the interaction of microglia with the peripheral immune system could cause infiltrating immune cells to produce deleterious immune response. The involvement of peripheral immune responses in PD also provides an idea for the treatment of PD, which is to control microglia-induced neuroinflammation by vaccination.