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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis – Diagnosis and treatment

Therapy

Your doctor may send you to a physical or occupational therapist who can teach you exercises to help keep your joints flexible. The therapist may also suggest new ways to do daily tasks, which will be easier on your joints. For example, you may want to pick up an object using your forearms.

Assistive devices can make it easier to avoid stressing your painful joints. For instance, a kitchen knife equipped with a hand grip helps protect your finger and wrist joints. Certain tools, such as buttonhooks, can make it easier to get dressed. Catalogs and medical supply stores are good places to look for ideas.

Surgery

If medications fail to prevent or slow joint damage, you and your doctor may consider surgery to repair damaged joints. Surgery may help restore your ability to use your joint. It can also reduce pain and improve function.

Rheumatoid arthritis surgery may involve one or more of the following procedures:

  • Synovectomy. Surgery to remove the inflamed lining of the joint (synovium) can be performed on knees, elbows, wrists, fingers and hips.
  • Tendon repair. Inflammation and joint damage may cause tendons around your joint to loosen or rupture. Your surgeon may be able to repair the tendons around your joint.
  • Joint fusion. Surgically fusing a joint may be recommended to stabilize or realign a joint and for pain relief when a joint replacement isn’t an option.
  • Total joint replacement. During joint replacement surgery, your surgeon removes the damaged parts of your joint and inserts a prosthesis made of metal and plastic.

Surgery carries a risk of bleeding, infection and pain. Discuss the benefits and risks with your doctor.

Alternative medicine

Some common complementary and alternative treatments that have shown promise for rheumatoid arthritis include:

  • Fish oil. Some preliminary studies have found that fish oil supplements may reduce rheumatoid arthritis pain and stiffness. Side effects can include nausea, belching and a fishy taste in the mouth. Fish oil can interfere with medications, so check with your doctor first.
  • Plant oils. The seeds of evening primrose, borage and black currant contain a type of fatty acid that may help with rheumatoid arthritis pain and morning stiffness. Side effects may include headache, diarrhea and gas. Some plant oils can cause liver damage or interfere with medications, so check with your doctor first.
  • Tai chi. This movement therapy involves gentle exercises and stretches combined with deep breathing. Many people use tai chi to relieve stress in their lives. Small studies have found that tai chi may improve mood and quality of life in people with rheumatoid arthritis. When led by a knowledgeable instructor, tai chi is safe. But don’t do any moves that cause pain.

Coping and support

The pain and disability associated with rheumatoid arthritis can affect a person’s work and family life. Depression and anxiety are common, as are feelings of helplessness and low self-esteem.

The degree to which rheumatoid arthritis affects your daily activities depends in part on how well you cope with the disease. Talk to your doctor or nurse about strategies for coping. With time you’ll learn what strategies work best for you. In the meantime, try to:

  • Take control. With your doctor, make a plan for managing your arthritis. This will help you feel in charge of your disease.
  • Know your limits. Rest when you’re tired. Rheumatoid arthritis can make you prone to fatigue and muscle weakness. A rest or short nap that doesn’t interfere with nighttime sleep may help.
  • Connect with others. Keep your family aware of how you’re feeling. They may be worried about you but might not feel comfortable asking about your pain. Find a family member or friend you can talk to when you’re feeling especially overwhelmed. Also connect with other people who have rheumatoid arthritis — whether through a support group in your community or online.
  • Take time for yourself. It’s easy to get busy and not take time for yourself. Find time for what you like, whether it’s time to write in a journal, go for a walk or listen to music. This can help reduce stress.

Preparing for your appointment

While you might first discuss your symptoms with your family doctor, he or she may refer you to a doctor who specializes in the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions (rheumatologist) for further evaluation.

What you can do

Write a list that includes:

  • Detailed descriptions of your symptoms
  • Information about medical problems you’ve had in the past
  • Information about the medical problems of your parents or siblings
  • All the medications and dietary supplements you currently take and have taken in the past for this problem
  • Questions you want to ask the doctor

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask some of the following questions:

  • When did your symptoms begin?
  • Have your symptoms changed over time?
  • Which joints are affected?
  • Does any activity make your symptoms better or worse?
  • Are your symptoms interfering with daily tasks?

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