8 Things I Wish People Knew About Parenting a Child With ADHD

From the minute we entered the restaurant with my 6-year-old son, I knew we were in for a tough time. The room was packed and noisy. It wasn’t kid-friendly, and my son has ADHD.

We sat down at a table, and within minutes, he was fidgeting in his seat. He grabbed the salt and pepper shakers and started playing with them, pretending they were race cars. I kept taking them away, explaining quietly but firmly that they weren’t toys and he needed to leave them alone.

But the second I turned away to look at the menu, I heard a sharp voice from another table. It was another mom, scolding my son for “driving” the pepper shaker into her daughter’s arm.

I instantly felt ashamed, and under attack. I tensed up, turned back to my son, and barked, “What are you doing? I told you to put those away!”

As the mom and a few other patrons glared at me, my shame was joined by a familiar feeling of guilt and fear. I’d had this experience before, and I would go on to have it many times again. And every time it happened, it hurt.

Eventually, I realized something that made it a little easier to handle: Most people who judge do it because they just don’t know.

So here’s what I’d like them to understand about me, my son, and ADHD:

1. It’s not his fault he behaves this way.

My son’s brain works differently than other kids—it’s a neurological issue. He’s not doing these things on purpose. Believe me, if he could have more self-control and focus, he would. It’s no fun for him to struggle with these things.

2. It’s not my fault he behaves this way.

I may not always do the right thing as a parent, but my parenting isn’t the cause of his challenges. Yes, I discipline him. And when he acts out, I give him consequences. But what works with other kids often doesn’t work with him. Or it doesn’t work every time. Sometimes I blame myself, even though I’m not sure what I’m blaming myself for.

3. ADHD is complicated.

It’s not just about being “hyper” or not listening. What you see isn’t even the half of it. He struggles in all sorts of ways you may not even notice—with things you may take for granted in your own kids. Turning in homework. Keeping track of time. Organizing his things and his thoughts. Applying what he knows one day to what he needs to do the next.

4. He’s not being rude or defiant.

Well, he can be those things from time to time, just like any kid. But the behavior you may see as disrespectful (to me, or to other people) isn’t really that. Once my son realizes he’s been hurtful or made others unhappy, he feels terrible. He doesn’t mean it.

5. We’re both trying as hard as we can.

We make schedules and checklists to try to keep things on track. We role-play ways he could have handled things differently. He works hard every day to keep it together at school, even if it means losing it when he comes home. I work hard not to lose it when he does. It’s exhausting.

6. Putting my young child on ADHD medication wasn’t easy.

He gagged the first time he tried to swallow a pill. He cried the first time he couldn’t finish his pancakes because he had less of an appetite in the morning. I wanted to cry, too. But the medication truly changed his life. It’s not everyone’s choice, but it was our family’s choice. I just don’t want people to think I did it lightly.

7. Feeling judged makes everything worse.

It isolates us, when what we need most is support.

8. He’s so much more than his ADHD.

If people could look beyond the challenges, they’d see the person I see. He’s funny and smart. He’s loyal, almost to a fault. He picks himself up when he falls, and he tries again. Most important, he has tremendous empathy. And unlike many people, he shows it all the time.


8 Things You Should Know About Osteoporosis And Fracture Risk

Bone health is every woman’s concern. Resolve to make it a priority.

How strong are your bones? You may have no idea — until a bone breaks when you push on a stuck window or bend down to pick up something you’ve dropped. Fractures resulting from such seemingly innocuous activities — sometimes called fragility fractures — are usually the first symptom of osteoporosis, the skeletal disorder that makes bones vulnerable to breakage even without a serious fall or other trauma.

Osteoporosis is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures each year in the United States, almost half of them vertebral (spine) fractures and the rest mostly broken hips and wrists. Hip fractures usually require hospitalization and surgery and often result in permanent disability or the need for nursing home care. Nearly 25% of hip-fracture patients die within a year. Vertebral fractures not only are painful but also cause a stooped posture that can lead to respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. Having any kind of low-impact fracture boosts the risk of having another.

Normal and osteoporotic bone


These are microscopic views of bone. On the left, a 75-year-old woman with healthy bone structure; on the right, a 47-year-old woman with osteoporosis. As you can see, osteoporosis undermines bone strength and resilience not only by decreasing bone mass (total tissue) but also by disrupting the bone’s “microarchitecture,” or structural organization.

Mostly a woman’s disease

Of the estimated 10 million Americans who have osteoporosis, 80% are women. Another 22 million women are at increased risk for the disease. In both sexes, certain medications (glucocorticoids, aromatase inhibitors, immunosuppressive drugs, chemotherapy drugs, and anticonvulsants) can lead to significant bone loss. So can certain medical conditions. Celiac disease and Crohn’s disease, for example, reduce the absorption of calcium and other nutrients needed for bone maintenance. Rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroidism, chronic kidney or liver disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, and anorexia nervosa are also associated with osteoporosis.

Currently, a woman’s odds of having an osteoporotic fracture are one in three. We can’t control all the factors involved, but we need to do all we can to strengthen and preserve our bones. To that end, here are eight important points to keep in mind.

1. Vital nutrients

A healthy diet preserves bone strength by providing key nutrients such as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and — of course — calcium and vitamin D. If you don’t get enough calcium, your body will take it from your bones. If your diet doesn’t supply enough calcium (1,000 to 1,200 milligrams per day), take a supplement. The same goes for vitamin D, which is needed to extract calcium from your food. Food sources of vitamin D are limited, and you may not get enough sun to manufacture adequate amounts through the skin. Experts recommend 800 to 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day (women being treated for vitamin D deficiency take much higher amounts). According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the form that best supports bone health. To learn more about other nutrients that affect bone health, visit

2. The exercise prescription

Two types of exercise — weight-bearing and resistance — are particularly important for countering osteoporosis. Weight-bearing activities are those in which your feet and legs bear your full weight. This puts stress on the bones of your lower body and spine, stimulating bone cell activity. Weight-bearing exercise includes running, jogging, brisk walking, jumping, playing tennis, and stair climbing. Resistance exercise — using free weights, rubber stretch bands, or the weight of your own body (as in sit-ups and push-ups) — applies stress to bones by way of the muscles. It’s especially helpful for strengthening bones of the upper body that don’t bear much weight during everyday activities. Merely occasional exercise won’t help, though. Aim for at least 30 minutes of bone-strengthening exercise most days of the week. If you have osteoporosis or another pre-existing health condition, consult a clinician about whether you should avoid certain activities, positions, or movements.

Bone turnover basics


Bone continually undergoes a process called remodeling, or bone turnover, which has two distinct stages: resorption (breakdown) and formation. Bone is a storage depot for calcium. When the body needs calcium, bone cells called osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and break it down, leaving small cavities (A). Bone-forming cells called osteoblasts move into these cavities (B), releasing collagen and other proteins to stimulate bone mineralization and replace what was lost. The osteoblasts that become incorporated in the new bone (matrix) are called osteocytes (C).

Early in life, bone formation outpaces resorption. By age 20, most of us have the greatest amount of bone tissue we’ll ever have (peak bone mass). Bone mass declines very slowly until late perimenopause, when bone loss becomes more rapid, due in part to decreased estrogen, a crucial player in bone turnover. Also, after age 50 to 60 our bodies are less able to absorb calcium and produce vitamin D. We continue to lose bone, though more slowly, for the rest of our lives.

3. No smoking, please

Here’s yet one more reason not to smoke: Women who smoke lose bone faster, reach menopause two years earlier, and have higher postmenopausal fracture rates. The mechanism isn’t known; smoking may lower estrogen levels, or it may interfere with the absorption of calcium and other important nutrients.

4. Know your risk

To screen for osteoporosis, clinicians measure bone mineral density (BMD) — the amount of calcium and other minerals in bone. The best way to assess fracture risk is to calculate BMD at the spine and hip with low-dose x-rays (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, or DXA) and factor in a woman’s age. The World Health Organization’s definition of osteoporosis is based on a DXA value called a T-score, which compares the amount of bone a woman has to normal peak bone mass. A T-score of −2.5 or worse indicates osteoporosis. Women who have T-scores of −1.0 to −2.5 have osteopenia and are at increased risk for developing osteoporosis.

Most official guidelines recommend DXA screening for all women starting at age 65, and earlier for women who take medications or have health conditions that increase osteoporosis risk. But reduced BMD is only one risk factor for osteoporosis. You’re also at greater risk if you smoke or are older, Caucasian, or thin, or if you had a fracture after age 50 or have a parent who had a hip fracture. The World Health Organization has developed a formula that predicts 10-year fracture risk based on BMD and other risk factors. A calculator based on this formula is available at

Clinicians are also interested in bone quality — a complex characteristic that includes bone mineralization, microarchitecture, and the rate of bone turnover. So far, we have no way to noninvasively assess bone quality, but new imaging technologies are being developed that may allow clinicians to visualize the internal structure of bone and gain information that was once available only through biopsy.

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15 Things People Who Don’t Get Migraines Don’t “Get” About Migraine

If you don’t get migraines, lucky you. If you do, share this with friends and co-workers. It’ll help them understand our strange symptoms and actions.

If you live or work with someone like me who has migraines for long periods of time, you must have been on the receiving end of a range of expressions and actions that may have left you wondering: Are they faking it? What did I do to offend them? Am I boring them?

Nope. Probably nothing. And probably not.

Trouble is, it’s hard to ‘get’ migraines unless you get migraines – and, according to The Migraine Trust, six out of every seven people don’t.

If you don’t have Migraine, there is likely to be a lot you don’t know about Migraine. For example, you probably don’t know that it’s not just a headache.

It’s a multi-symptom genetic neurological disorder. And some of those symptoms and behaviors you see are not what they seem.

In fact, many of us actually fake feeling what you would deem “normal” more often than you can imagine – just to preserve our relationships and our jobs. It’s a rare day when I feel perfectly normal, with no pain and no extra-sensory symptoms.

This decoder may help you discover something you don’t know about Migraine and help you preserve a great relationship or job. It explains some weird behaviors you might otherwise misinterpret, react to or be offended by.

Hopefully, it will help us all communicate a little better.

15 Things People Who Don’t Get Migraines Don’t “Get”

1 – We’re not picky eaters; we’re just easily nauseated

Waves of nausea can happen at any time, and are often hard to disguise. We turn our noses away, lift a hand to make sure we can hold down our cookies in public. It’s not the broccoli you served for dinner; it’s my Migraine.

2 – We don’t yawn because we’re bored or tired

people who dont get migraines think youre boring them

Not sleepy or bored. Might be migraine.

Yawning could mean we’re tired (and we probably are, since sleep can be elusive and inconsistent for many who get migraines).

For many, yawning is one of those subtle warning signs of a prodrome (the first of four phases before the pain starts) in which the brain is begging for more oxygen.

It’s not that your life story is boring; it’s my Migraine.

3 – We smell like a bear, and we smell it first

Every day, and especially before, during and after a migraine attack, all of our senses are on high alert. Many who get migraines can smell gas and smoke way before others can; it’s one of our cool superpowers.

The flip side: strong perfume, paint, gasoline, exhaust fumes and more can trigger an attack. Our eyes often give away what the nose detects. It’s not a five-alarm fire; it’s my Migraine.

4 – We can be a bit reluctant to commit

Because Migraine threatens to interrupt the most trivial events on the biggest days of our lives, we’ve had to disappoint people by canceling things we really want to do. So, we might be vague.

If you sense a reluctance to make firm plans, it’s because we don’t want to let you down, buy tickets we can’t use, or trigger a migraine. We fear a migraine will, once again, disrupt our plans.

It’s not that I don’t want to go to the concert; it’s my Migraine.

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Ankylosing Spondylitis

10 Ways to Prevent Long-Term Joint Damage from Ankylosing Spondylitis

Joint damage in the spine is a major concern for people with ankylosing spondylitis. In particular, there’s a risk for the development of bone spurs called syndesmophytes that may fuse vertebrae together, causing the spine to become rigid, says Susan M. Goodman, MD, a rheumatologist at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City.

“One of the paradoxes of ankylosing spondylitis is the combination of syndesmophyte, or bone growth, and osteoporosis, or bone resorption, occurring simultaneously in inflammatory disease,” Dr. Goodman explains.

To help address these potential complications and maintain your joint and bone health, start with these steps.

1. Avoid Alcohol to Help Keep Bones Strong


Alcohol can weaken your bones, according to the Spondylitis Association of America (SAA), particularly if you have more than two drinks a day. Alcohol can also interact with medications for ankylosing spondylitis. “Alcohol can be risky with some medications for ankylosing spondylitis, and it’s also a risk factor for osteoporosis when taken to excess,” Goodman notes.

It may be okay to drink in moderation, however, even with ankylosing spondylitis, she adds. Moderate drinking is defined as up to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Talk to your doctor about whether alcohol will interfere with your medication.

2. Get Plenty of Calcium and Vitamin D — the Building Blocks of Bone


Even if you don’t drink to excess, ankylosing spondylitis may increase your risk for osteoporosis and bone fractures, according to the SAA. For bone health, load up on both calcium and vitamin D, which are essential nutrients that work together as a team. Calcium is needed to build and maintain bones; vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends 1,000 milligrams of calcium daily for women up to age 50 and men up to age 70, after which everyone should get 1,200 mg daily. Dairy products are good sources of calcium. Daily recommendations for vitamin D are 400 to 800 IU for men and women under 50, and then 800 to 1,000 IU for those over 50. Sunlight, fatty fish, fortified foods, and supplements are sources of vitamin D. “It’s very important to carefully assess bone health with a bone mineral density study, and ensure that patients are getting enough vitamin D,” Goodman says.

3. Get Active to Prevent Stiffness


Exercise, particularly stretching and weight-bearing activities, can protect against joint damage, according to the SAA. It can also help prevent some of the stiffness that comes with ankylosing spondylitis. You can work with a physical therapist to determine the best type and intensity of exercise for you. For example, low-impact activities like walking and swimming are generally easier on joints than running, tennis, and soccer. Walk on a flat surface to reduce joint strain and gently stretch for better flexibility and function.

4. Wear Good Shoes to Help Prevent Falls


It’s especially important to minimize the risk of falling because ankylosing spondylitis often leaves the bones in the neck and back more fragile and more susceptible to fracture. To stay steady on your feet, invest in stable, secure, properly fitting footwear that has good support and cushioning to help protect your foot and ankle joints. Wearing proper shoes may also help reduce the likelihood of plantar fasciitis, a common cause of heel pain that often occurs in people with ankylosing spondylitis.

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10 Teaching Tips for Dyslexia

1. Praise Gives Power Criticism Kills

A person with dyslexia needs a boost to their self-confidence before they can learn to overcome their difficulties. They have already experienced failure and deep down they often don’t believe they are capable of learning.

To re-establish self-confidence provide the opportunity to succeed and give praise for small achievements.

Dyslexics need constant praise and support. You worked hard! You did well! WOW! That's really good!

2. Don’t ask person with dyslexia to read aloud

Words are likely to be misread or skipped, causing embarrassment.


3. Don’t give a punishment for forgetting books or sports kit

Offer positive strategies such as having one place to put things away.


4. Don’t use the word ‘lazy’

People with dyslexia have to work harder to produce a smaller amount.

They will have difficulty staying focused when reading, writing or listening.



5. Expect less written work

A person with dyslexia may be verbally bright but struggle to put ideas into writing.

Allow more time for reading, listening and understanding.


6. Prepare a printout of homework and stick it in their book

Provide numbered steps, e.g. 1. Do this. 2. Do that etc.


7. Do not ask them to copy text from a board or book

Give a printout. Suggest they highlight key areas and draw thumbnail pictures in the margin to represent the most important points.

Do not expect a dyslexic to copy text from a board or book

8. Accept homework created on a computer

Physical handwriting is torture for most people with dyslexia. Word processors make life much easier. Allow them to use the Spell Checker and help with grammar and punctuation so that you can see the quality of the content.


9. Discuss an activity to make sure it is understood

Visualising the activity or linking it to a funny action may help someone with dyslexia remember.


10. Give the opportunity to answer questions orally

Often people with dyslexia can demonstrate their understanding with a spoken answer but are unable to put those ideas in writing.

Lyme disease

18 Symptoms of Lyme Disease – as Shown in Photos


Any medical information included is based on a personal experience. For questions or concerns regarding health, please consult a doctor or medical professional.


Although many people may experience similar symptoms, Lyme disease looks different for everyone. Whether you’re battling largely “invisible” symptoms, such as pain or fatigue, or something more apparent, like rashes or hair loss, these symptoms can often manifest in a variety of ways, depending on the individual and their unique health situation, and result in co-infections or comorbidities.

But even though Lyme symptoms can take on different forms, it is important to raise awareness of these manifestations so those with Lyme disease can be better understood and have more productive conversations with loved ones, friends and doctors. So, we asked our community to share photos depicting one of the symptoms they experience. Let’s shed some light on how complex and multifaceted Lyme disease can really be.

Here’s what our community shared with us:

1. Pain

“I was at the eye doctor and not feeling well. I just laid on the floor in such pain on my service dog for over an hour because things were running so slow. I didn’t care about any of the many people that saw me laying eyes closed in the waiting room because my body was in so much nerve pain that all I could do was grab onto my service dog and wait until they were done.” – Cassidy S.

woman lying on the floor of a waiting room with her service dog

“Chest pains near my heart from cartilage and muscular pain. I have a PICC and do daily infusions that are really helping, but one little thing can turn severe fast. It’s terrifying, lonely and hard to explain. Hospitals are usually the last resort with someone with Lyme due to their complete ignorance on chronic Lyme.” – Genevieve G.

woman sitting in a hospital bed at the emergency room

2. Paralysis

“Paralysis. This symptom caused me to rely on others for every need including walking, driving, using the bathroom, drinking and more.” – Cassidy C.

woman lying paralyzed in a bath tub

3. Fatigue/Exhaustion

“I’m usually a ray of sunshine, but behind closed doors I am in the dark mentally, and physically. Being bounced from doctor, to doctor. Infectious disease physician refuses to treat me for Lyme disease until after further test results from lumbar puncture, and more tests reveal other conditions in addition to the Lyme. Missing work from a career I actually love. Not having enough energy to play with my children, clean my home the way I want, or make plans with friends. When I do get a little burst of energy, I end up paying for it shortly after the fact. I forget what normal feels like.” – Angela R.

woman wearing headphones and frowning

“My boyfriend snapped this pic after a very long night. No matter how much I sleep, I’m perpetually tired and achey.” – Kathryn B.

woman sitting at a table holding a blue blanket around her with the caption 'my beautiful breakfast burrito'

4. Anxiety

“Anxiety about illness… concern for my entire family… heavy on my mind… pray to find and shed the light and for strength to help others.” – Darlene D.O.

woman standing indoors looking at a rainbow of light reflected on the floor

5. Nervous System Dysfunction

“Fifty to 60 injection sites from my skull to my hips trying to calm my nervous system. This is done every two weeks for months on end. The circled areas are still inflamed almost two hours after the injection. This is a treatment my support systems are mostly unaware I do.” – Lanna B.

the back of a woman's head with lumps circled from injection sites

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Autoimmune Disease

10 Strategies to Reverse Autoimmune Disease

Autoimmune diseases, when taken all together, become a HUGE health burden. Among these are rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, Celiac disease, and thyroid disease. In fact, over 80 diseases have been classified as autoimmune and the list is growing.

Autoimmune disease now affects over 24 million Americans and five percent of the population in Western countries. They often include weird, hard-to-classify syndromes like inflammation, pain, swelling, and general misery.

What are autoimmune diseases? Well, your immune system is your defense against invaders. Imagine your immune system as an army that must clearly distinguish friend from foe.

Autoimmunity occurs when your immune system gets confused and your own tissue get caught in friendly crossfire.

Put another way, your body is always fighting something, whether it’s battling infections, toxins, allergens, or a response to stress. Sometimes, your immune army redirects its hostile attack against you. Your joints, brain, skin, and sometimes your whole body become casualties.

This whole concept is called molecular mimicry. Conventional medicine accepts this problem, but they stop there and no one LOOKS for what might be creating the problem.  They don’t dig to find out which molecule your cells are MIMICKING.

Using anti-inflammatories like Advil, or steroids, or immune suppressants like methotrexate, or TNF alpha blockers like Enbrel can lead to intestinal bleeding, kidney failure, depression, psychosis, osteoporosis, muscle loss, diabetes, not to mention overwhelming infection and cancer.

Don’t get me wrong. These drugs can be life saving and help people get their life back, but they miss the point.  There is another way to deal with this.

The Problem with a Conventional-Medicine Approach

While classified as many different diseases, they have one thing in common. In every case of autoimmune disease, the body attacks itself.

Is there another way to treat these problems than deploying powerful immune-suppressive drugs that put patients at increased risk of infection and even death?

Historically, medical discoveries originated from physicians’ keen observations of their patients’ diseases and responses to treatment. Doctors reported their findings to their colleagues or published them as case studies.

Today these “case studies” are often dismissed as “anecdotes” and have become increasingly irrelevant. Instead, we now focus on randomized controlled trials as the only standard of “evidence.”

Sadly, this approach dismisses the experience of thousands of patients and physicians as they apply new scientific findings to treat difficult conditions.

Basic scientific discoveries often take decades to be translated into medical practice. Unfortunately, this prevents millions from accessing therapies that could benefit them now.

The determining factor in deciding whether to try a new approach with a patient is the risk/benefit equation. Is the treatment more likely to help than harm? How risky is the treatment? What are the side effects? How dangerous or risky is the current approach to a problem? How debilitating or life threatening is the disease being treated?

Except for treating infections with antibiotics and treating trauma, medicine today approaches most disease by suppressing, covering over, blocking, or otherwise interfering with the body’s biology. We generally do not attempt to seriously address the underlying problems that lead to the disease in the first place.

Cholesterol medications, to provide one example, block an enzyme that produces cholesterol (among other important molecules like CoQ10), but they don’t address why cholesterol may be high in the first place (factors like diet, exercise, stress, and genetics). Doctors use beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, SSRI’s (serotonin reuptake inhibitors), ACE-inhibitors, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatories.

We are inhibiting, blocking, or anti-ing everything. But we don’t ask two simple questions:

Why is the body out of balance and how do we help it regain balance?

There is a new approach to medicine that is beginning to ask these questions.

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Acid Reflux

7 signs your everyday acidity has taken a more serious turn

Having acidity every day may point towards acid reflux, which requires your immediate attention.

Have you experienced a burning sensation that rises from your abdomen and reaches your throat through your chest?  This condition is known as heart-burn, or more commonly, acidity.

Most people suffer from acidity occasionally. It mostly happens after consuming a large meal with high fat content, food that increases acidity in the stomach, or after laying down too quickly after eating.

But, if you are reaching out for an antacid every other week, it is a huge red flag.  More often than not, when you continue experiencing acidity symptoms on a regular basis, it turns out to be gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).  

It is a condition where acid from the stomach comes up into the food pipe (esophagus). GERD, when left untreated, can result in serious life-threatening complications, including esophageal cancer.

Here are 7 symptoms that you should definitely watch out for if you have frequent acidity:

1. Frequent Heartburn

If you experience heartburn more than 2 times a week on a regular basis, be assured it is not normal. Starting somewhere in the abdomen and extending to your throat, heartburn is more commonly experienced after taking a meal.

2. Morning Nausea

In GERD, stomach acid goes back to the mouth and esophagus, leading to nausea and a bad, sour taste in the mouth.This commonly happens in the morning, because there’s a long gap between dinner and breakfast the next morning.

3. Chronic Dry Cough

In addition to heartburn, unexplained coughing that gets aggravated at night is one of the primary symptoms of this disease.

4. Hoarseness

Acid reflux making its way to the voice box can lead to hoarseness and sore-throat for no apparent reason.

5. Chest Pain

Pain that starts high in the abdomen is one of the most common symptoms of acid reflux, however,  if you feel pain rising in your chest for any reason what so ever, it is always advisable to get medical help ASAP.

6. Regurgitation

Partially digested food coming back to the throat, signifies indigestion, something that is not meant to be taken lightly.

7. Bad Breath

In spite of brushing twice a day and flossing regularly, if you constantly use mints and chewing gums to mask your bad breath, it may very well be a case of GERD as acid reflux causes stinky breath.

Some lifestyle changes are said to very helpful in relieving GERD and its symptoms, including maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding tight-fitting clothes-especially around the abdomen, eating small and frequent meals, elevating the head of your bed and not eating spicy or greasy food.

However, it is strictly advisable to get a medical check-up done if you notice one or more of the above mentioned symptoms.

Multiple sclerosis

16 Early Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

What is multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive, immune-mediated disorder. That means the system designed to keep your body healthy mistakenly attacks parts of your body that are vital to everyday function. The protective coverings of nerve cells are damaged, which leads to diminished function in the brain and spinal cord.

MS is a disease with unpredictable symptoms that can vary in intensity. While some people experience fatigue and numbness, severe cases of MS can cause paralysis, vision loss, and diminished brain function.

Common early signs of multiple sclerosis (MS) include:

  • vision problems
  • tingling and numbness
  • pains and spasms
  • weakness or fatigue
  • balance problems or dizziness
  • bladder issues
  • sexual dysfunction
  • cognitive problems

1. Vision problems

Visual problems are one of the most common symptoms of MS. Inflammation affects the optic nerve and disrupts central vision. This can cause blurred vision, double vision, or loss of vision.

You may not notice the vision problems immediately, as degeneration of clear vision can be slow. Pain when you look up or to one side also can accompany vision loss. There are variety of ways to cope with MS-related vision changes.

2. Tingling and numbness

MS affects nerves in the brain and spinal cord (the body’s message center). This means it can send conflicting signals around the body. Sometimes, no signals are sent. This results in numbness.

Tingling sensations and numbness are one of the most common warning signs of MS. Common sites of numbness include the face, arms, legs, and fingers.

3. Pain and spasms

Chronic pain and involuntary muscle spasmsare also common with MS. One study, according to the National MS Society, showed that half of people with MS had chronic pain.

Muscle stiffness or spasms (spasticity) are also common. You might experience stiff muscles or joints as well as uncontrollable, painful jerking movements of the extremities. The legs are most often affected, but back pain is also common.

4. Fatigue and weakness

Unexplained fatigue and weaknessaffect about 80 percent of people in the early stages of MS.

Chronic fatigue occurs when nerves deteriorate in the spinal column. Usually, the fatigue appears suddenly and lasts for weeks before improving. The weakness is most noticeable in the legs at first.

5. Balance problems and dizziness

Dizziness and problems with coordination and balance can decrease the mobility of someone with MS. Your doctor may refer to these as problems with your gait. People with MS often feel lightheaded, dizzy, or as if their surroundings are spinning (vertigo). This symptom often occurs when you stand up.

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How to Treat COPD: 10 ways

Lung bronchi congested with COPD phlegm

Avoid Smoking With COPD

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two lung diseases make breathing more difficult. Chronic bronchitis inflames and narrows airways (bronchi) and makes phlegm, while emphysema destroys parts of the lungs. If you smoke, quitting smoking can prevent more damage to your lungs. Even secondhand smoke can worsen COPD, so try avoiding it. For help with quitting smoking or avoiding secondhand smoke, talk to your doctor.Mature man using COPD inhaler

Bronchodilators for COPD

Your doctor may prescribe bronchodilators to help relax the muscles around your airways, making breathing easier. Short-acting bronchodilators provide brief relief fast, while long-acting bronchodilators can relieve constriction for a long time and are often used overnight. Bronchodilators are usually taken as an inhaled medication.Medications and milk on bedside table

Corticosteroids for Inflammation

Corticosteroids, also called steroids, help reduce mucus production and inflammation in your lungs, making breathing easier. Most people with COPD take corticosteroids by inhaler, but sometimes they are taken in pill form. You may need to boost your calcium intake if you take steroids long-term, so talk with your doctor about whether you’ll need calcium supplements or a change in your diet.Nurse administering vaccine

Vaccines: Flu and Pneumonia

If you have COPD, you’re at higher risk for complications from infections like the flu and pneumonia. You’ll want to do all you can to reduce your risk of illness. You should get vaccinated against seasonal flu every year and receive a pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccine with a booster shot as needed.Microscopic View Bacterial Lung Infection

COPD Infections and Antibiotics

Infections can aggravate your COPD. (Here, pneumonia-causing bacteria are seen in blue on the lung’s air sacs.) If you do get a bacterial infection, your doctor will recommend antibiotics. Always finish the entire course of antibiotics, even if you start to feel better earlier. If you stop taking an antibiotic too soon, the bacteria could become antibiotic-resistant, making it harder to treat your infection.

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