5. Broccoli and Other Cruciferous Vegetables
The cruciferous vegetable family includes broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, brussels sprouts and several others.
These are very healthy, containing many essential nutrients like fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K, iron and potassium.
However, they also contain FODMAPs, so they may cause bloating in some people (12).
Cooking cruciferous vegetables may make them easier to digest.
What to eat instead: There are many possible alternatives, including spinach, cucumbers, lettuce, sweet potatoes and zucchini.
Onions are underground bulb vegetables with a unique, powerful taste. They are rarely eaten whole, but are popular in cooked meals, side dishes and salads.
Even though they’re usually eaten in small quantities, onions are one of the main dietary sources of fructans. These are soluble fibers that can cause bloating (13, 14).
Additionally, some people are sensitive or intolerant to other compounds in onions, especially raw onions (15).
Therefore, onions are a known cause of bloating and other digestive discomforts. Cooking the onions may reduce these digestive effects.
What to eat instead: Try using fresh herbs or spices as an alternative to onions.
Barley is a commonly consumed cereal grain.
It is very nutritious, since it is rich in fiber and contains high amounts of vitamins and minerals like molybdenum, manganese and selenium.
Because of its high fiber content, whole grain barley may cause bloating in individuals who are not used to eating a lot of fiber.
Furthermore, barley contains gluten. This may cause problems for people who are intolerant to gluten.
What to eat instead: Refined barley, like pearl or scotch barley, may be tolerated better. Barley can also be replaced with other grains or pseudocereals like oats, brown rice, quinoa or buckwheat.
Rye is a cereal grain that is related to wheat.
It is very nutritious and an excellent source of fiber, manganese, phosphorus, copper and B-vitamins.
However, rye also contains gluten, a protein that many people are sensitive or intolerant to.
Because of its high fiber and gluten content, rye may be a major cause of bloating in sensitive individuals.
What to eat instead: Other grains or pseudocereals, including oats, brown rice, buckwheat or quinoa.
9. Dairy Products
Dairy is highly nutritious, as well as an excellent source of protein and calcium.
There are many dairy products available, including milk, cheese, cream cheese, yogurt and butter.
However, about 75% of the world’s population can’t break down lactose, the sugar found in milk. This condition is known as lactose intolerance (16, 17).
If you’re lactose intolerant, dairy can cause major digestive problems. Symptoms include bloating, gas, cramping and diarrhea.
What to eat instead: People who are lactose intolerant can sometimes handle cream and butter, or fermented dairy like yogurt (18).
Lactose-free milk products are also available. Other alternatives to regular milk include coconut, almond, soy or rice milk.